The birds flying over our heads are creatures that have lived for a very long time, traversing 150 million years and evolving through it. In 2022, the number of birds in Indonesia was stated to be 1818 species, scattered in all corners of the archipelago. After a lengthy period, birds made it through changes on earth to modern times, surviving what the dinosaurs couldn't.
Now, the birds are challenged again to go through extreme dynamics. Geological or astronomical factors are not the only ones that influence environmental dynamics. The presence of humans on earth has succeeded in changing the landscape and cycles on this planet, with an increase in greenhouse gases as a result of their activities. If the trend of increasing greenhouse gases remains as it is now, then global warming will increase by 1.5-4.5°C around 2030.
Although birds have long transcended environmental dynamics and been able to evolve over millions of years, today's climate is changing at an unprecedented rate, posing a threat to many bird species that are unable to adapt to it. Rising temperatures are also causing a narrowing of habitat ranges, while many birds are dependent on certain temperature ranges. With an increase in temperature, the range shifts, for example to a higher altitude with cooler temperatures. However, shifting ranges does not solve other problems such as food availability as the degree of dependence on forage trees or nests affected by climate change is now critical.
Because climate change has occurred, the thing that can be done is to reduce the emission rate. Natural forests have a big role for climate change adaptation. Communities living around the forest can take advantage of forest products. For birds, healthy forests provide more diverse niches. The development of knowledge will increase human understanding to prepare the best adaptation strategies for forests.